Adsorption of Methylene Blue by an Efficient Activated Carbon Prepared from Citrullus lanatus Rind: Kinetic, Isotherm, Thermodynamic, and Mechanism Analysis
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By using the activated carbon obtained from Citrullus lanatus rind by zinc chloride activation, methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solutions was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was solved through Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model, Bangham model, Boyd model, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of adsorption parameters (adsorbent concentration, temperature, initial dye concentration, and pH) were investigated. The equilibrium data of MB adsorption were described by applying the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The obtained results from adsorption isotherms indicated that Langmuir model is the best-fitted model with the maximum adsorption capacities of 231.48, 243.90, 244.50, and 259.74 mg/g at 25, 35, 45, and 55 degrees C, respectively. The analysis of the kinetic data by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models displayed that MB adsorption followed pseudo-second-order model. Also, the date obtained from intraparticle diffusion model, Bangham model, and Boyd model presented that intraparticle diffusion, pore diffusion, and film diffusion played significant role in MB adsorption. The thermodynamic studies demonstrated that MB adsorption onto the activated carbon obtained from C. lanatus rind was physical, spontaneous, feasible, and endothermic. Thus, the activated carbon prepared from C. lanatus rind has been an efficient adsorbent for MB removal from an aqueous solution.